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Symptoms And Causes of Vitamin Deficiency Anaemia


Symptoms And Causes of Vitamin Deficiency Anaemia

Vitamin deficiency anaemia is a lack of healthy red blood cells that occurs when certain vitamins are lower than normal. Vitamins associated with vitamin deficiency anaemia include folic acid, vitamins B12, and vitamin C.


Vitamin deficiency anaemia can occur when you don't eat enough foods that contain folic acid, B12, or C, or if your body has trouble processing or absorbing these vitamins. It is significant for your primary healthcare provider to diagnose and treat your anaemia. Vitamin deficiency anaemia can generally be fixed with changes in your eating routine (diet) and supplements.


Symptoms of Vitamin Deficiency Anaemia

The signs and side effects of vitamin deficiency anaemia include:

  1. Fatigue
  2. Shortness of Breath
  3. Dizziness
  4. Yellowish skin
  5. Irregular heart beats
  6. Weight loss
  7. Numbness and tingling in the limbs
  8. Weakness
  9. Personality changes
  10. Unstable movement
  11. Confusion or forgetfulness

Vitamin deficiency usually progresses slowly over the course of months or years. The signs and symptoms of a vitamin deficiency may be subtle at first, but worsen as the deficiency increases.


Causes of Vitamin Deficiency Anaemia

Vitamin deficiency anaemia occurs when your body lacks the vitamins it needs to make healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells convey oxygen from your lungs all through your body.

 

Lack of certain vitamins in your diet can lead to vitamin deficiency anaemia. Vitamin deficiency anaemia can also develop because your body is unable to adequately absorb nutrients from the foods you eat.


The causes of vitamin deficiency anaemia are:

Folic acid deficiency anaemia

Folic acid, also known as vitamin B-9, is a nutrient found primarily in leafy vegetables and fruit. A diet that is constantly deficient in these foods can lead to deficiencies. Deficiency can also occur if your body is unable to absorb folic acid from food. The vast majority of the food nutrients are caught up in the small digestive system (small intestine).


There may be a problem with the absorption of folic acid, which is a synthetic form of folate added to foods and supplements, when:

  1. There are minor intestinal disorders such as celiac disease.
  2. Received surgical removal or bypass of most of the small intestine.
  3. Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol.
  4. Taking some prescription drugs, such as some antiepileptic drugs.

Pregnant and lactating women, as well as those on dialysis for kidney disease, have a higher demand for folic acid. Failure to meet this growing demand can lead to shortages or deficiencies.


Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia

Vitamin B12 deficiency can be mainly caused by a diet low in vitamin B12, which is found mostly in meat, eggs and milk.


However, the most well-known reason for vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia is the absence of a substance called intrinsic factor. This can be caused when your immune system accidentally attacks the cells in the stomach. This sort of anaemia is called malignant iron deficiency or pernicious anaemia.

 

Intrinsic factor is a protein secreted by the stomach that binds to vitamin B12 in the stomach and is absorbed into the bloodstream via the small intestine. Without intrinsic factor, vitamin B12 is not absorbed, leaving your body as a waste product. People with endocrine-related autoimmune diseases such as diabetes and thyroid disease may be at g greater risk of developing pernicious anemia.


Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia can likewise happen if your small digestive system can't ingest or absorb vitamin B12 for reasons other than an absence of intrinsic factor. This can happen in the accompanying cases:

  1. If you have had gastric or small intestine surgery, such as gastric bypass surgery.
  2. If bacteria grow abnormally in your small intestine.
  3. If there is intestinal disease that interfere with the absorption of vitamins, such as Crohn's disease and celiac disease.
  4. Tapeworm ingested while eating infected fish. Tapeworms deplete nutrients from your body.

Vitamin C Deficiency Anaemia


Vitamin C deficiency can occur if you don't get enough vitamin C from the foods you eat. Vitamin C deficiency can also occur if something affects the ability of your body to absorb vitamin C from food. For example, smoking affects the body's ability to absorb vitamin C.

Some chronic diseases, such as cancer and chronic kidney disease, also increase the risk of vitamin C deficiency anaemia by affecting the absorption of vitamin C.


Risk Factor

There are several factors that can affect your body's vitamin buildup. In general, the risk of vitamin deficiency greater when:

  1. Your diet contains little or no source of natural vitamins. Such as dairy, meat, fruit and vegetables. Vegetarians who do not eat dairy products and vegans who do not eat animal-derived foods can fall into this category.
  2. Overcooked foods can also lead to vitamin deficiency.
  3. You are pregnant and not taking multivitamins. Supplements and Folic acid are particulally significant during pregnancy.
  4. There are intestinal problems and other medical conditions that interfere with the absorption of vitamins. Abnormal growth of bacteria in the stomach and surgery on the intestines and stomach can interfere with the absorption of vitamins B12.
  5. Alcohol abuse. Alcohol interferes with the absorption of folic acid, vitamin C and other vitamins.
  6. Taking some prescription drugs that can interfere with the absorption of vitamins. Medicines for epilepsy can interfere with the absorption of folic acid. Antacids and some medications used to treat type 2 diabetes can interfere with the absorption of B-12.

Complications of Vitamin Deficiency Anaemia

Vitamin deficiency anaemia increases your risk of numerous medical conditions, such as:


1.    Complications of pregnancy

Pregnant women with folic acid deficiency are more likely to have complications such as preterm labour. A developing fetus that does not get enough folic acid from the mother can cause fetal damage to the brain and spinal cord.


If you are planning a pregnancy, talk to your doctor if you are considering taking folic acid supplements so that your body has enough folic acid reserves to support your baby.

 

2.    Disorders of the nervous system

Vitamin B12 is significant for the creation of red platelets (red blood cells). And it is also important for the healthy nervous system.


If left untreated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause neurological problems. Such as persistent tingling in the limbs and problems with balance. This can lead to confusion and forgetfulness, as the brain needs vitamin B12 to function properly.


Without treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency, neurological complications can be permanent. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause these and other medical conditions before it causes anaemia.

 

3.    Scurvy

Vitamin C deficiency can lead to scurvy. Signs and symptoms of this rare condition include bleeding under your skin and around your gums.

 

Prevention of Vitamin Deficiency Anaemia

Choose a healthy diet

Choosing a healthy diet consisting of a variety of foods can prevent some types of vitamin deficiency anaemia.

Foods’s rich in folic acid are

  1. Dark green leafy vegetables
  2. Peanuts
  3. Enriched cereal products such as bread, cereals, pasta and rice
  4. Fruit and juices

Foods’s rich in vitamins B12 are:

  1. Egg
  2. Fortified foods such as breakfast cereals
  3. Milk, cheese, yogurt
  4. Meat and fish

Foods’s rich in vitamin C are:

  1. Broccoli
  2. Fruit and citrus juices
  3. Strawberries
  4. Green pepper
  5. Tomato

Most adults need these daily doses of the following vitamins:

  1. Vitamin B-12: 2.4 micrograms (mcg)
  2. Folic acid or folate 400 mcg
  3. Vitamin C: 75-90 milligrams

Pregnant and lactating women may need more of each vitamin.

Consider multivitamins

If you are concerned about getting enough vitamins from the foods you eat, ask your doctor if multivitamins may be right for you. Most people get enough vitamins through the food they eat. However, if you are on a restricted diet, it is advisable to take multivitamins.


Stop smoking

Smoking meddles with the assimilation of nutrients like vitamin C and can increase the danger of vitamin deficiency anaemia. Stop smoking if you smoke. If you don't smoke, don't start. If you attempt to stop smoking on your own, but can’t, talk to your doctor about strategies that can help you quit.


Drink alcohol moderately or not at all

Alcohol can contribute to vitamin deficiency anaemia. If you decide to drink liquor or alcohol, take it moderately. For healthy adults, a moderate intake is generally considered.

1.    Two glasses a day for men under the age of 65

2.    One cup a day for men over 65

3.    One drink a day for women of all ages


The drink is 12 ounces (355 ml) of beer, 5 ounces (148 ml) of wine, or 1.5 ounces (44 ml) of 80-degree distilled spirits.


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